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Diverse communities with complex food-web structures took 30 million years to reestablish.
Temnospondyl amphibians were among those groups that survived the Permian-Triassic extinction; some lineages (e.g.
A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, called dinosaurs, first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic Period.
The first true mammals, themselves a specialized subgroup of Therapsids, also evolved during this period, as well as the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, who like the dinosaurs were a specialized subgroup of archosaurs.
Subequatorial saurichthyids have also been described in Early Triassic strata.
The Permian-Triassic extinction devastated terrestrial life. Biodiversity rebounded as the surviving species repopulated empty terrain, but these were short lived.
However, the climate shifted and became more humid as Pangaea began to drift apart.
From the east, along the equator, the Tethys sea penetrated Pangaea, causing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to be closed.Thus Triassic stratigraphy is mostly based on organisms that lived in lagoons and hypersaline environments, such as Estheria crustaceans.At the beginning of the Mesozoic Era, Africa was joined with Earth's other continents in Pangaea.Sediments and fossils suggestive of a more humid climate are known from the Anisian to Ladinian of the Tethysian domain, and from the Carnian and Rhaetian of a larger area that includes also the Boreal domain (e.g., Svalbard Islands), the North American continent, the South China block and Argentina.The best studied of such episodes of humid climate, and probably the most intense and widespread, was the Carnian Pluvial Event.